Memphis, 47 km south of Cairo on the west bank of the Nile at the head of the Nile delta, was the capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom and most of the Pharaonic period. Memphis was founded by King Menes, the ruler who united Upper and Lower Egypt, around 3100 B.C.E. Most of the city was buried under alluvial mud by the Nile flooding.
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Last modified 29 June 2016